1939  As World War II began with the invasion of Poland, life in Frankfurt also changed. In all of Germany a "lights out" policy  was announced; thus, Frankfurt was dark at night. Groceries were only available with ration cards. On April 3, 1939, the Jewish community was forced to sell its real properties and other assets. 1941-45 Beginning in the fall, Jews were required to wear a yellow star on their left side in public. In 1941 the large deportations to Theresienstadt, Lodz, Izbica, Majdanek, Minsk, Kaunas and Auschwitz began in Frankfurt. The collection point was the large market hall on the Hanauer Landstraße. Out of the more than 10,600 persons deported from Frankfurt, fewer than 600 were freed in 1945. From November 1938 until the official emigration prohibition on October 23, 1941, approximately 7,000 Frankfurt Jews emigrated. With a Jewish population of 4.7% before Hitler's seizing of power, Frankfurt stood at the peak of German cities, ahead of Berlin and Breslau. In 1943 area commander Sprenger announced that Frankfurt was "free of Jews." 1938-39 During the morning of November 10, 1938, the synagogues in Frankfurt were burned and Jewish shops and private residences were wantonly demolished and plundered. 2621 Jewish men were arrested and forced to the Festhalle and later to Buchenwald or to Dachau. Everyday life in Frankfurt was characterized by increasing harassment. Jews were not permitted to go out or to use public transportation. Jews were required to pay special taxes, such as the Jewish capital levy or the emigration tax, when they emigrated. Neither the tax privacy laws nor the laws regarding the protection of personal information applied to Jews. All Jewish establishments were under the control of municipal authorities after the pogrom of November. In April of 1938, the two Jewish congregations/communities had been compulsorily united. The Jewish community was given the task of ensuring that the rules of the Gestapo were complied with. Synagoge at the Börneplatz 1933 With the naming of Adolf Hitler as chancellor, the president of the Republic, Paul van Hindenburg, paved the way for the NS-State. Only two days later, the new government, under the direction of Hitler, dissolved the German Parliament in Berlin. In Prussia, to which Frankfurt belonged, the Secretary of the Interior Hermann Göring ordered the municipal representatives to disband. In the parliamentary elections an March 5, 1933, just over 170,000 residents of Frankfurt voted for the NSDAP (constituting 44.1%), 0.2% more than the national average. One week later, in the municipal elections, the NSDAP received 47.9% of the vote, which gave them one seat short of an absolute majority. On the next day the mayor (Lord Mayor in Eng.) Ludwig Landmann was removed from office, and in his place the National Socialist Friedrich Krebs was appointed. On April 1, a boycott of Jewish shops, lawyers and doctors was proclaimed under the slogan "Don't buy from Jews." The "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" of April 7, 1933 led to the firing of more than one-third of the teachers at the University of Frankfurt within one year. The law "Against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities" limited the access of Jews to higher education. On May 10, 1933, Frankfurt students and professors demonstrated the cultural attitude of the National Socialists by burning Marxist and "un-German" literature on the Römerberg, Frankfurt's historical centre. 1934-37 The longer the authority of the National Socialists lasted, the more threatening the persecution of the Jews became. Every step out of the house meant confrontation with prohibitions, discrimination and hostility. At the schools, the school week began or ended with hoisting the flag on the schoolyard; lessons began and ended with "Heil Hitler." The uniforms of the various party memberships, from the "Hitler Youth" to the SS, were part of everyday life, as was the omnipresent swastika.